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and to some small neighbouring islands. The rest occur in the
Ethiopian and in the Oriental region. The rest of the world is
at present totally without Lemurs, though, as will be seen in the
sequel, the order was more widely spread over the globe in past
Fam. 1. Lemnridae.—This family can be usefully subdivided
into four sub-families.
Sub-Earn. I. Indrisinae.—This sub-family is limited to Mada-
gascar, and has been exhaustively treated of by M. Grandidier
and Professor Milne-Edwards in the ffistoire de Madagascar.
These Lemurs contrast with others by the large size of the hind-
as compared with the fore-limbs. The ears are short. The tail
varies in length. The thtimb is but slightly opposable, and the
toes are webbed. Correlated with the first two of these
characters, these Lemurs when upon the ground progress by
means of the hind-limbs, holding their arms above their heads.
The number of teeth is reduced, the total being thirty. The
formula l is T -j- C -J- Pm -§- M ^. The colon or large intestine, as
figured by Milne-Edwards, has a remarkable watch-spring-like coil,
highly suggestive of the Uuniinants and of certain Rodents. This,
however, is only in Propithecus and Avahis. The caecum in
tliis sub-family is specially large. The brain is characterised by
the comparatively slight development of the angular fissure in
Propithecus and Awoukis ; it is in them anterior in position. In
Indris it is more S-shaped and larger as in Lemur. The
parieto-occipital fissure is fairly well developed, so too is the
anter o -temporal.
The genus Indris has more pronounced external ears than
have the two other genera of the sub-family. The tail is
rudimentary. The incisors of the upper jaw are sab-equal and
set close together, those of the lower jaw have marked longitudinal
ridges upon the outer surface, which suggests Galeopithecus (see
p. 520). The molars are quadricuspidate. There is but a single
species, I. brevicaudata,, which is of a black colour, diversified with
white upon the rurnp and the limbs. The term " Indri " 2 means,
as does <f Aye-aye," " look." One of the native names for the
x So at least the formula lias been given ; but it is very possible that the
supposed second incisor is really, judging from the other Lemurs, a canine.
2 The Malagasy, however, must be vague in definition, or their interpreters
nofc well grounded in the rudiments of the language ; for Sonnerat states that
Indii signifies *' homnie des.bois,"